如何写英语作文 - Roy Liu

请网友踊跃提出英语文问题, 或自己学习心得
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royl
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如何写英语作文 - Roy Liu

帖子 royl » 周三 3月 03, 2010 12:30 pm

如何写英语作文 - Roy Liu

作文大致可分为说服性作文, 辩论性作文, 解释性作文, 推理性作文, 功课或作业性作文, 及叙述性作文. 在这篇文章里我想把注意力集中在前面四种作文, 因为他们性质结构比较相似. 在托福(TOEFL)考试, 在申请美国大学的SAT测验, 及其他各式各样的考试里, 写作是一项必要的考试项目之一. 其实在美国大学英文课程里写作文也是经常发生的随时随地小考之一. 我记得我在美国大学上英文写作课程时, 每次一上课第一件事就是拿出纸笔, 写一篇短文并马上交出. 在这里所指的短文是五个到七个段落的短文, 与长篇大论的论文有显然的差距. 另一个差距是题目由老师决定或由考试出题者所决定; 所以你没有选择权.

在这个情况下你要如何应付? 网友要抓住几个简单原则来处理此一工作. 我很谨慎地提出一些简明方案给网友做参考:

准备工作
原则一: 把心情放平静(最好作深呼吸), 心情一乱就无法思考清楚.
原则二: 抓住一篇短文基本结构也就是介绍针对主题发表事实与背景的陈述; 导引到你的意见或想法; 提出支持你意见或想法的证明; 圆融地把你的意见或想法与佐证带入令人心服的结论.
原则三: 不论你要先写草稿与否, 你要准备白纸以便先打草稿然后再重新誊写, 或先规划写作大纲再依大纲撰写文章.
原则四: 在写作什至说话时一定要避免涉及与主题无关的废话, 切忌跳跃式的想法或缺乏连贯性的写作.

开头第一段落
1. 一开题段落就要提出一个能扣住别人心弦的陈述, 激起别人对你要写的东西的兴趣, 切忌把题目重抄一遍让人感到你在敷衍了事.
2. 在成功地打响第一炮之后你可以加上一些背景与事实来补强你的开题陈述. 如此你的陈述才不会显得单薄或让人无法充分了解.
3. 发表你的意见或想法. 如果你开头段落太长而你无法缩减, 你可以把你的意见与想法放在第二段落, 并可以详细地解释你的意见, 如此可以避免说不清楚令人困惑或误解的问题.

随后的几个段落(文章主体)
4. 举出事实或证据来支持你的意见或想法. 请注意每一段落只能针对一个意见或想法发表论证, 千万不可将两个主要论点混为一谈. 我们之所以这样写作是为了使读者不会产生混淆与困惑, 同时也可以避免被扣分.
5. 当我们举出事实或佐证时, 一定要注意推理的连接性; 不要理所当然地认为你写的短短一两句话, 你的读者自己会一步接一步地推理下去而且会自动自发地找到你的论点与依据. 这是错误的也是不负责任的, 你的责任是要将你的论点及推理的每个重要的步骤简明地写出来并引导读者清楚地看到你的论点与依据.
6. 再度提醒网友在写作什至说话时一定要避免涉及与主题无关的废话, 切忌跳跃式的想法或缺乏连贯性的写作.
7. 为了使你的文笔转折流畅, 建议你要巧妙使用下列具有连接性词汇(actually; admittedly; as a matter of fact; as a result; by and by; by comparison; by no means; certainly; for the same reason; for this reason; furthermore; in addition; in fact; it follows that; likewise; moreover; naturally; nevertheless; of course; on the contrary; on the whole; similarly; simply put; surely; undoubtedly; without a doubt ; without question; yet). 当然这些词汇并不是全面性的, 读者自己也可以寻找适当的词汇来使上下文能够无缝隙地衔接.

结论
8. 最后一段落, 也就是你的结论部分, 你要总结你前面所提出的主要论点以及再次强调你的意见或想法的正确性. 但是请你避免重提事实或佐证等细节论述, 因为你已经详尽地把该证明你论点的话说完了, 没有重申的必要.
9. 当你完成了草稿之后, 你可以重新阅读一遍; 如果发现文笔不流畅, 佐证不够强烈, 解释不够精确, 或脱离主题等问题, 你可以迅速加以修正改善. 最后以干净清晰字体重写你的文章并交出. 如果你没有时间写草稿的话, 你可以先把你要写的大纲有秩序地列出, 再以干净清晰字体直接写作最终的版本. 这种写法比较费力, 也没有空间出错, 但总比交不出文章要强许多.

建立英语句型
最后我要再提醒网友们一个写作的窍门- 建立英语句型. 虽然我在别的文章里已经重复提到这个工作的重要性, 我还是要再一次地提醒您. 当你竭尽所能地阅读英文书籍与文章之时, 你同时在建立资料库, 也就是把许多句型深藏累积在脑海里. 英文与中文或者其他语文都一样, 当人们写作什至说话时, 几乎毫不犹豫地把常用的语文写下来. 当然因人而异, 部分字汇会有所不同, 但整体句型还是差不多. 如果你能掌握到出口成章(也就是把英语文从潜意识毫不犹豫地表达出来), 你已经成功一大半了!

以下是一篇转载的文章

http://blogs.consumerreports.org/health ... a-day.html

Why not ban pre-existing condition exclusions and call it a day?

In all but a handful of states, if you have a pre-existing medical condition, you're going to have a hard time buying individual insurance. You might get turned down completely, or be charged very high premiums and probably also have to wait as long as a year (paying those very high premiums the whole time) before the health plan covers your condition's treatment.

So it's no surprise that one of the most popular components of the Congressional health-reform bills is the part that says insurance companies would have to accept all comers regardless of pre-existing conditions. So popular, in fact, that some politicians and pundits have suggested that we should just ban pre-existing condition exclusions and forget about the rest of the legislation.

Would that work?

Probably not, say insurance experts we consulted.

"Think about it from the insurer's perspective," said Thomas Buchmueller, professor of risk management and insurance at the University of Michigan. "If somebody says you have to cover everybody from day one, well, that creates an incentive for consumers to wait until they're sick or pregnant to buy insurance. That's like buying homeowner's insurance after your house burns down. The plan has to collect enough money to pay everyone's health care bills, and if they are all sick, you have to collect a lot of money ."

The logical solution, then, is another component of the reform legislation—the individual mandate that says everyone has to have health insurance or pay a fine. That way, the risk pool includes healthy people whose premiums can subsidize the care of the sick. It's the underlying premise of all types of insurance: spreading the cost of big-ticket catastrophes across a large pool of people.

But there's a problem with that when it comes to health care. In the US, we spend more than $7,000 a year on health care for every man, woman, and child. "Even if you had every person in America in the risk pool, a family of four would have to pay $28,000 for health care," said Karen Pollitz, an insurance expert at the Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. "That's why you'll never expand coverage without subsidies."

You can see where all this is headed. Banning pre-existing conditions won't work without making sure the risk pool includes healthy people, and you can't do that without helping lower-income families afford the premiums. And before you know it , you've ended up with the health-care bills now stalled in Congress.

—Nancy Metcalf, Senior Program Editor

(本论坛文章欢迎网友转载, 请标明文章来源: welcomeyall.com)

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